Year-over-Year YOY: Meaning, Formula, and Application

what is yoy mean

Here we’ll go over how exactly you should calculate year-over-year growth, why it’s so important for business owners to do so, and why year-over-year calculations are indispensable in a startup owner’s toolbox. If you’re an investor – or someone looking to start investing soon – and want to explore a business’s financial performance before possibly becoming a shareholder, you’ll also find YOY reporting figures helpful. Similarly to seasonality, business performance can vary over the course of a year. As a result, sequential analysis could make a business appear unstable.

YOY financial metrics

Unlike standalone quarterly/monthly/weekly metrics, YOY gives you a clearer picture of performance without seasonal effects, monthly volatility, and other factors. If we multiply the prior period balance by (1 + growth rate assumption), we can calculate the projected current period balance. Under either approach, the year over year (YoY) growth rate in the property’s NOI is 20.0%, which reflects the percentage change between the two periods. To calculate the YoY growth rate, the current period amount is divided by the prior period amount, and then one is subtracted to get to a percentage rate. In a 2019 NASDAQ report, Kellogg Company released mixed results for the fourth quarter of 2018, revealing that its YOY earnings continued to decline, even when sales increased following corporate acquisitions.

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This is considered more informative than a month-to-month comparison, which often reflects seasonal trends.. This material has been presented for informational and educational purposes only. The views expressed in the articles above are generalized and may not be appropriate for all investors. There is no guarantee that past performance will recur or result in a positive outcome. Carefully consider your financial situation, including investment objective, time horizon, risk tolerance, and fees prior to making any investment decisions. No level of diversification or asset allocation can ensure profits or guarantee against losses.

How to Calculate YoY Growth

Year-over-year (YoY) is a metric that refers to the 12-month change of a particular value and compares it to the change in a different period. In other words, it is the change in annualized returns between two comparable periods. When you measure the performance of one metric now and compare it against a different period, you can understand what direction your business is taking and act appropriately. Moving averages are used to smooth out fluctuations in data by calculating the average over a specific number of periods. That’s usually the amount of profit and the period – the month or the quarter. Then, by right-clicking one of the amount columns, choose Show Values As and % Difference From.

Similar Metrics to Year-over-Year (YoY)

Article contributors are not affiliated with Acorns Advisers, LLC. Acorns is not engaged in rendering tax, legal or accounting advice. Please consult a qualified professional for this type of service. Understanding this data can help the management team make important decisions on budgeting, fundraising, and capital allocation. Economic data is often shown using year-over-year calculations, but government agencies may also choose to take a monthly growth rate and annualize it.

Investors like to examine YOY performance to see how performance changes across time. YoY stands for Year over Year and is a type of financial analysis that’s useful when comparing time series data. Analysts are able to deduce changes in the quantity or quality of certain business tickmill review aspects with YoY analysis. In finance, investors usually compare the performance of financial instruments on a year-over-year basis to gauge whether or not an instrument is performing expected. This analysis is also very useful when analyzing growth patterns and trends.

By looking at Macy’s Q3 vs Q4 earnings in 2020, it seems as if the company performed well since there was an increase in reported revenue. However, by comparing 2020’s Q4 over 2019’s Q4, the earnings-per-share declined by 62% due to the Coronavirus pandemic. YOY is a financial metric that compares a company’s performance in a given year to the performance of the same period in the previous year. For example, if a company had $100,000 in revenue in 2020 and $150,000 in revenue in 2021, the YOY growth rate would be 50%.

For information pertaining to the registration status of 11 Financial, please contact the state securities regulators for those states in which 11 Financial maintains a registration filing. It shows just how much better or worse a company is doing in a certain metric compared to the same period of time. Just like YTD, MTD performance is calculated by subtracting the initial value at the beginning of the current month from the current value, dividing it by the initial value, and multiplying by 100 to get a percentage. In another example, a company such as Spirit Halloween that sells costumes would expect most of its annual revenue between late August and early November. If the company wants to compare this season’s growth compared to last season, it will use YoY reports.

Thousands of people have transformed the way they plan their business through our ground-breaking financial forecasting software. In the other states, the program is sponsored by Community Federal Savings Bank, to which we’re a service provider. The most popular among them are month-over-month, year-to-date, and quarter-over-quarter. With the help of Excel or tools such as Tableu, you’ll be able to follow the YOY values easily.

Year-to-date (YTD) looks at a change relative to the beginning of the year (usually Jan. 1). YTD can provide a running total, while YOY can provide a point of comparison. The company also revealed plans to reorganize its North America and Asia-Pacific segments, removing several divisions from the former and reorganizing the latter into Kellogg Asia, Middle East, and Africa. Despite decreasing YOY earnings, the company’s solid presence and responsiveness to consumer consumption trends meant that Kellogg’s overall outlook remained favorable. Pete Rathburn is a copy editor and fact-checker with expertise in economics and personal finance and over twenty years of experience in the classroom. ‘Save and Invest’ refers to a client’s ability to utilize the Acorns Real-Time Round-Ups® investment feature to seamlessly invest small amounts of money from purchases using an Acorns investment account.

Overall, YOY comparisons provide valuable insights into the trends and changes that have occurred over a specific period, helping businesses and individuals make informed decisions based on historical data. MOM (month-over-month) statistics are usually not a realistic representation of any company’s performance. The businesses that have peak seasons can show huge losses in MOM or even quarterly comparisons. But, comparing your business to the same time last year will show you all the important information.

what is yoy mean

By comparing a company’s current annual financial performance to that of 12 months back, the rate at which the company has grown as well as any cyclical patterns can be identified. YOY also differs from the term sequential, which measures one quarter or month to the previous one and allows investors to see linear growth. For instance, the number of cell phones a tech company sold in the fourth quarter compared with the third quarter or the number of seats an airline filled in January compared with December. For example, retailers have a peak demand season during the holiday shopping season, which falls in the fourth quarter of the year. To properly quantify a company’s performance, it makes sense to compare revenue and profits YOY.

For larger companies, a YOY growth rate in the range of 5% to 10% might be considered healthy and stable. These companies may face more significant challenges in achieving high growth rates due to their size and market saturation. As already mentioned, YOY as a measuring technique will showcase and compare two events on a yearly basis.

what is yoy mean

Year over year, or YoY for short, is a calculation used to see a business’s growth or loss compared to the same period of time during previous years. A YoY comparison can be made monthly, annually, quarterly, or for any event that repeats itself over the course of the years, such as holidays or set sales events. YOY is used to make comparisons between one time period and another that is one year earlier. This allows for an annualized comparison, say between third-quarter earnings this year vs. third-quarter earnings the year before.

This means that the company’s revenue increased by 25% from the previous year (2022) to the current year (2023). Startups and new companies will have a bigger growth rate than those that are already quite profitable. Each industry has its own standards when it comes to growth rate so it’s difficult to compare.

YOY measurements facilitate the cross comparison of sets of data. For a company’s first-quarter revenue using YOY data, a financial analyst or an investor can compare years of first-quarter revenue data and quickly ascertain whether a company’s revenue is increasing or decreasing. Compounding is the process in which an asset’s earning from either capital gains or interest are reinvested to generate additional earnings over time. It does not ensure positive performance, nor does it protect against loss.

For example, many retail businesses experience substantial sales growth during the fourth quarter because of the holiday season. While this is certainly nice to experience as a business, comparing revenue from that quarter to revenue in other quarters that year might give us a misleading picture of that company’s growth. In most cases, YoY growth will compare monthly or quarterly performance, but any time period will do so long as you have at least a full year’s worth of data. For business owners specifically, YOY calculations are beneficial for tracking growth and pinpointing, tracking and resolving problems causing stagnation or decline. When applied on a micro-scale, YOY data can identify seasonal trends and effectively flag areas for improvement and resolution. Great rates can make a company stand out to investors, especially newer ones, as they’re an understandable, objective company performance measure based on facts and figures.

If your organization uses a non-standard fiscal year, YTD might also reference the period between the beginning of the current fiscal year and the current date. It should give you clear insights not only into what’s going on with your business but also help you predict the future and make better decisions. Now that we have uncovered the pros and cons of YOY, you might wonder – what is good YOY growth? Well, you won’t find one universally accepted answer, because it doesn’t exist. It depends on the type of business, the market, and also your goals.

In addition to removing variables that are outside of your business’ control, YoY calculations are a great way of keeping tabs on long-term business performance. Let’s say your company wants to calculate its year-over-year revenue growth for the month of January. We’ll also assume that the business earned $50,000 in revenue this January while it earned $40,000 in the same month last year. However, in most cases, Year-Over-Year is used to measure financial performance for a particular year, quarter, or month. Calculating YoY metrics is sometimes called “annualizing,” and it’s one of the best ways to develop a longer-term understanding of your business’s performance.

Kellogg predicted that adjusted earnings would drop by a further 5% to 7% in 2019 as it continued to invest in alternate channels and pack formats. You can determine the YoY growth rate by subtracting last year’s revenue number from this year’s revenue number. A positive result shows a YoY gain, and a negative number shows a YoY loss.

Every day we publish thousands of dashboards, process billions of rows, store terabytes of data for companies just like yours. When you convert to a percentage, you find that the dealership’s MoM growth was 66.67% as of February. If by April you have figures of $55,450 for January, $87,690 for February, $50,460 for March, and $40,600 so far in April, your YTD results will be the sum of these revenues.

  1. YOY is a valuable metric because it allows businesses to track their growth over time and see how their performance is improving or declining.
  2. However, this doesn’t mean the business is performing poorly, just that shopping trends differ by season.
  3. Month-over-Month (MoM) analysis compares the performance of a metric or variable from one month to the previous month within the same year.
  4. Custom Portfolios are not available as a stand alone account and clients must have an Acorns Invest account.
  5. Many companies see an uptick in sales in November and December for the holiday season.

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Some businesses also use compound monthly growth rate (CMGR) to show growth over a given number of months. CMGR can also be used to predict likely performance over the next few months. YTD information is most useful when making strategic decisions during the year. That’s because it offers insights on a longer time period than other time-based metrics such as MTD. A platform like Brixx offers comprehensive financial and automated accounting features, enabling businesses to efficiently track their accounts, automate financial forecasting, and produce precise financial reports. With its intuitive interface and powerful functionality, try using Brixx for free to stay on top of your finances and manage your growth.

Our mission is to empower readers with the most factual and reliable financial information possible to help them make informed decisions for their individual needs. The most common application of Year-Over-Year data is called Year Over Year growth, or YOY growth.

Year over year calculations can also be used by other industries aside from retailers. Governments and economists might use it to calculate a country’s GDP, and healthcare providers can also use it to calculate total patient care costs with the introduction of new policies or infrastructure. Manufacturing jobs have been declining for years, so calculating the rate of job loss in this industry is an effective way to measure how much and how quickly it’s changing. Year over year is just one rate businesses should be calculating to measure success as part of their accounting work.

During evaluation, investors will typically look at the YOY change in financial metrics. Some of them, such as liquidity and operating cash flow, are best followed through the YOY method, so the investors can determine how stable the business is. This information is valuable because it showcases trends in financial metrics. Also, it helps investors evaluate seasonal or cyclical businesses more objectively.

Year-Over-Year is a way of looking at multiple annualized sets of a company’s financial data from separate years to see how that data has changed. However, it can be difficult or time-consuming to have to work out these figures every time on Excel. For example, a slight decrease in sales for two months in a row could show the development of a new trend, prompting an investigation into the causes. Businesses in the service industry also use MTD performance results extensively. Call centers, IT services, and marketing agencies all use MTD figures in performance reports to keep up with service-level agreements.

This can be of great use as some businesses have certain periods when they bloom. While month-to-month financial comparisons can lack accuracy, often affected by seasonal trends, year-over-year financial comparisons are the gold standard for many financial analysts and businesses. As a result, they’re considered more informative and meaningful and frequently referenced in annual, quarterly, and monthly performance reports.

It’s also important to look at other metrics to get a full picture of how a company is performing because YoY won’t show everything on its own. Still, YoY remains a popular bookkeeping method to analyze performance for many business owners, and with good reason. Sequential growth compares data from one period to the immediately preceding period, regardless of whether it is a month, quarter, or year. With YoY calculations, you can be confident that the percentage changes you’re calculating are accurate, unbiased, and reflective of your company’s actual financial health.

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